Palm Oil Engineering Bulletin No.8 (Oct - Dec 1987) p20-22
Research news – Characterization of oil in the centrifuge sludge discharge
CHOW Mee Chin

Recent research studies show that the oil in the sludge can be identified and quantified as 30% free oil droplets, 56% oil that can be released by combined enzyme and detergent action and 14% residual oil which remains diffused and bound to cell debris.

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